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NEW REPORT LAYS OUT HOW TRUMP COULD WITHDRAW THE U.S. FROM PARIS AGREEMENT

Climate Depot - Tue, 02/14/2017 - 10:06
A new congressional report lays out the various ways President Trump could withdraw the U.S. from a United Nations agreement to cut greenhouse gas emissions. The Congressional Research Service (CRS) found Trump may “unilaterally withdraw” from the so-called Paris agreement “without seeking approval from the legislative branch. Then-President Barack Obama signed the agreement in 2016, [...]

What Consensus?! Boston Globe: ‘Many meteorologists question climate change science’

Climate Depot - Tue, 02/14/2017 - 09:58
By David Abel GLOBE STAFF  FEBRUARY 13, 2017 They observe changes in the atmosphere like astronomers study the stars, analyzing everything from air pressure to water vapor and poring over computer models to arrive at a forecast. But for all their scrutiny of weather data, many meteorologists part ways with their colleagues — climate scientists [...]

BOSTON METEOROLOGIST FIRED FOR HAVING SKEPTICAL VIEW OF ‘GLOBAL WARMING’

Climate Depot - Tue, 02/14/2017 - 09:46
Date: 14/02/17 David Abel, Boston Globe Mish Michaels, a U.S. meteorologist, lost her job as a science reporter at WGBH’s show “Greater Boston” last week after colleagues raised concerns about her views on vaccines and climate change. Mish Michaels, U.S. meteorologist and science reporter They observe changes in the atmosphere like astronomers study the stars, analyzing [...]

Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito: ‘Carbon dioxide is not a pollutant’

Climate Depot - Tue, 02/14/2017 - 09:23
Via: http://www.scotusmap.com/posts/2 Justice Samuel Alito’s remarks at the Claremont Institute, 2/11/2017 On February 11th, 2017, Justice Samuel Alito received the Statesmanship Award and delivered the keynote speech at the Claremont Institute’s 2017 annual dinner in honor of Sir Winston S. Churchill. Diane Lenning has posted video clips of the speech to her YouTube page. Alito speech [...]

Modular electron-transport chains from eukaryotic organelles function to support nitrogenase activity [Microbiology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
A large number of genes are necessary for the biosynthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrogenase to carry out the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. The multiplicity of the genes involved, the oxygen sensitivity of nitrogenase, plus the demand for...

Ontogeny of collective behavior reveals a simple attraction rule [Ecology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
The striking patterns of collective animal behavior, including ant trails, bird flocks, and fish schools, can result from local interactions among animals without centralized control. Several of these rules of interaction have been proposed, but it has proven difficult to discriminate which ones are implemented in nature. As a method...

Galectin-3 directs antimicrobial guanylate binding proteins to vacuoles furnished with bacterial secretion systems [Microbiology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Many invasive bacteria establish pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as intracellular niches for microbial growth. Immunity to these infections is dependent on the ability of host cells to recognize PVs as targets for host defense. The delivery of several host defense proteins to PVs is controlled by IFN-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs),...

Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is...

Senescent cells expose and secrete an oxidized form of membrane-bound vimentin as revealed by a natural polyreactive antibody [Immunology and Inflammation]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Studying the phenomenon of cellular senescence has been hindered by the lack of senescence-specific markers. As such, detection of proteins informally associated with senescence accompanies the use of senescence-associated β-galactosidase as a collection of semiselective markers to monitor the presence of senescent cells. To identify novel biomarkers of senescence, we...

Genetic regulatory signatures underlying islet gene expression and type 2 diabetes [Genetics]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 independent SNPs that modulate the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related traits. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of most of these SNPs remain elusive. Here, we examined genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic profiles in human pancreatic islets to understand the links between genetic...

Investigations of human myosin VI targeting using optogenetically controlled cargo loading [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Myosins play countless critical roles in the cell, each requiring it to be activated at a specific location and time. To control myosin VI with this specificity, we created an optogenetic tool for activating myosin VI by fusing the light-sensitive Avena sativa phototropin1 LOV2 domain to a peptide from Dab2...

BMP singling controls buckling forces to modulate looping morphogenesis of the gut [Developmental Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Looping of the initially straight embryonic gut tube is an essential aspect of intestinal morphogenesis, permitting proper placement of the lengthy small intestine within the confines of the body cavity. The formation of intestinal loops is highly stereotyped within a given species and results from differential-growth–driven mechanical buckling of the...

Contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to variation in cancer risk among tissues [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Recently, it was suggested that tissue variation in cancer risk originates from differences in the number of stem-cell divisions underlying each tissue, leading to different mutation loads. We show that this variation is also correlated with the degree of aberrant CpG island DNA methylation in normal cells. Methylation accumulates during...

Mass spectrometry-based cross-linking study shows that the Psb28 protein binds to cytochrome b559 in Photosystem II [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Photosystem II (PSII), a large pigment protein complex, undergoes rapid turnover under natural conditions. During assembly of PSII, oxidative damage to vulnerable assembly intermediate complexes must be prevented. Psb28, the only cytoplasmic extrinsic protein in PSII, protects the RC47 assembly intermediate of PSII and assists its efficient conversion into functional...

Exceedingly small iron oxide nanoparticles as positive MRI contrast agents [Chemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Medical imaging is routine in the diagnosis and staging of a wide range of medical conditions. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for visualizing soft tissue and organs, with over 60 million MRI procedures performed each year worldwide. About one-third of these procedures are contrast-enhanced MRI, and gadolinium-based...

High thermal conductivity in soft elastomers with elongated liquid metal inclusions [Applied Physical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Soft dielectric materials typically exhibit poor heat transfer properties due to the dynamics of phonon transport, which constrain thermal conductivity (k) to decrease monotonically with decreasing elastic modulus (E). This thermal−mechanical trade-off is limiting for wearable computing, soft robotics, and other emerging applications that require materials with both high thermal...

Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking induces inverse energy cascade in 3D active fluids [Applied Mathematics]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Classical turbulence theory assumes that energy transport in a 3D turbulent flow proceeds through a Richardson cascade whereby larger vortices successively decay into smaller ones. By contrast, an additional inverse cascade characterized by vortex growth exists in 2D fluids and gases, with profound implications for meteorological flows and fluid mixing....

Gene activation of SMN by selective disruption of lncRNA-mediated recruitment of PRC2 for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy [Medical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and caused by mutations in SMN1 (Survival Motor Neuron 1). The disease severity inversely correlates with the copy number of SMN2, a duplicated gene that is nearly identical to SMN1. We have delineated a mechanism of...

Systems analysis of protective immune responses to RTS,S malaria vaccination in humans [Systems Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
RTS,S is an advanced malaria vaccine candidate and confers significant protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection in humans. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving vaccine immunity. Here, we applied a systems biology approach to study immune responses in subjects receiving three consecutive immunizations with RTS,S (RRR), or in those...

Structure of a lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase suggests how conformational changes govern substrate binding [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/13/2017 - 13:51
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria have increased the prevalence of fatal sepsis in modern times. Colistin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) antibiotic that permeabilizes the bacterial outer membrane (OM) and has been used to treat these infections. The OM outer leaflet is comprised of endotoxin containing lipid A, which can...
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