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New Study finds ‘global warming could drive increasing Arctic snowfall’ – ‘Slow shrinkage of Greenland Ice & affect pace of sea levels rise’

Climate Depot - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 14:03
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-05/uab-aho052316.php A history of snowfall on Greenland, hidden in ancient leaf waxes A surprising trove of data yields indications of increased Arctic snowfall in times of warming UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO IMAGE: UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO RESEARCHER ELIZABETH THOMAS HOLDS HALF OF A SEDIMENT CORE COLLECTED FROM THE LAKE IN WESTERN GREENLAND WHERE THE STUDY WAS SITED. SUCH [...]

Al Gore: Trump’s position on climate change ‘should concern everyone’ – Gore claims he’s green: ‘I do walk the talk’

Climate Depot - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 13:51
“I’m not Pollyanna-ish, but I do think that there is still some basis for hope.” Trump has called climate change a hoax created by China. “President [Jimmy] Carter said that he hopes [Trump] will be malleable, so I don’t know,” Gore said before laughing. Gore called the tone of the presidential campaign in which Trump [...]

Are there prions in plants? [Commentaries]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
Self-perpetuating protein conformers (prions) have been described in animals (including human) and fungi (including yeast), and linked to both diseases and heritable traits (1–4). One would wonder if plants have them too. Indeed, a paper by Chakrabortee et al. (5), from the laboratory of Susan Lindquist, provides a first example...

Social definition of neurodevelopment [Commentaries]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
The quality of family life in childhood predicts the risk for multiple mental disorders, implying sustained effects on relevant brain circuits. Indeed, there is evidence for the idea that the social environment shapes individual differences in brain development and function. A limitation of this evidence is that most studies focus...

V3A takes over a job of MT+ [Commentaries]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
A person’s performance on a perceptual task can be significantly improved by repetitive training on the task. This improvement is termed perceptual learning and is regarded as a manifestation of adult plasticity in perceptual and brain processing (1). To date, detailed neural mechanisms of perceptual learning have yet to be...

Auxin-dependent composition change in Mediator [Plant Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
Mediator is a multiprotein complex that integrates the signals from transcription factors binding to the promoter and transmits them to achieve gene transcription. The subunits of Mediator complex reside in four modules: the head, middle, tail, and dissociable CDK8 kinase module (CKM). The head, middle, and tail modules form the...

Unfalsifiability of security claims [Computer Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for...

Interspecific facilitation driven by root exudates [Ecology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
Plant diversity in experimental systems often enhances ecosystem productivity, but the mechanisms causing this overyielding are only partly understood. Intercropping faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) result in overyielding and also, enhanced nodulation by faba beans. By using permeable and impermeable root barriers in a 2-y...

BK channel structural rearrangements [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels are involved in a large variety of physiological processes. Regulatory β-subunits are one of the mechanisms responsible for creating BK channel diversity fundamental to the adequate function of many tissues. However, little is known about the structure of its voltage sensor domain. Here,...

Primed cytotoxic cells eliminate chimeric partners [Immunology and Inflammation]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
In a primitive chordate model of natural chimerism, one chimeric partner is often eliminated in a process of allogeneic resorption. Here, we identify the cellular framework underlying loss of tolerance to one partner within a natural Botryllus schlosseri chimera. We show that the principal cell type mediating chimeric partner elimination...

Population projections with migration uncertainty [Statistics]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
We produce probabilistic projections of population for all countries based on probabilistic projections of fertility, mortality, and migration. We compare our projections to those from the United Nations’ Probabilistic Population Projections, which uses similar methods for fertility and mortality but deterministic migration projections. We find that uncertainty in migration projection...

Sustainability of ancient Chesapeake Bay oysters [Anthropology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
Estuaries around the world are in a state of decline following decades or more of overfishing, pollution, and climate change. Oysters (Ostreidae), ecosystem engineers in many estuaries, influence water quality, construct habitat, and provide food for humans and wildlife. In North America’s Chesapeake Bay, once-thriving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations...

Revealing a 5,000-y-old beer recipe in China [Anthropology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
The pottery vessels from the Mijiaya site reveal, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of in situ beer making in China, based on the analyses of starch, phytolith, and chemical residues. Our data reveal a surprising beer recipe in which broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Job’s tears...

OGT in H3.3 deposition and cellular senescence [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
The histone chaperone HIRA complex, consisting of histone cell cycle regulator (HIRA), Ubinuclein1 (UBN1), and calcineurin binding protein 1 (CABIN1), deposits histone variant H3.3 to genic regions and regulates gene expression in various cellular processes, including cellular senescence. How HIRA-mediated nucleosome assembly of H3.3–H4 is regulated remains not well understood....

Digital electrochemical virus detection [Microbiology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
We report the specific collision of a single murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) on a platinum ultramicroelectrode (UME, radius of 1 μm). Antibody directed against the viral surface protein glycoprotein B functionalized with glucose oxidase (GOx) allowed for specific detection of the virus in solution and a biological sample (urine). The oxidation...

Mobile phone data explains cholera outbreaks [Environmental Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
The spatiotemporal evolution of human mobility and the related fluctuations of population density are known to be key drivers of the dynamics of infectious disease outbreaks. These factors are particularly relevant in the case of mass gatherings, which may act as hotspots of disease transmission and spread. Understanding these dynamics,...

Development of Neandertal body form [Anthropology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
Neandertal and modern human adults differ in skeletal features of the cranium and postcranium, and it is clear that many of the cranial differences—although not all of them—are already present at the time of birth. We know less, however, about the developmental origins of the postcranial differences. Here, we address...

Unacquainted callers can predict follow through [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
People are regularly asked to report on their likelihoods of carrying out consequential future behaviors, including complying with medical advice, completing educational assignments, and voting in upcoming elections. Despite these stated self-predictions being notoriously unreliable, they are used to inform many strategic decisions. We report two studies examining stated self-prediction...

Spliceosomal intronogenesis [Genetics]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
The presence of intervening sequences, termed introns, is a defining characteristic of eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Once transcribed into pre-mRNA, these introns must be removed within the spliceosome before export of the processed mRNA to the cytoplasm, where it is translated into protein. Although intron loss has been demonstrated experimentally, several...

RUNX phosphorylation in mitosis [Cell Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/23/2016 - 12:44
The Runt-related transcription factors (RUNX) are master regulators of development and major players in tumorigenesis. Interestingly, unlike most transcription factors, RUNX proteins are detected on the mitotic chromatin and apparatus, suggesting that they are functionally active in mitosis. Here, we identify key sites of RUNX phosphorylation in mitosis. We show...
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