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Evolution of salt stress in hexaploid wheat [Plant Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Tue, 07/29/2014 - 09:19
Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we...

Origin of myofibroblasts in liver fibrosis [Cell Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Tue, 07/29/2014 - 09:19
Hepatic myofibroblasts are activated in response to chronic liver injury of any etiology to produce a fibrous scar. Despite extensive studies, the origin of myofibroblasts in different types of fibrotic liver diseases is unresolved. To identify distinct populations of myofibroblasts and quantify their contribution to hepatic fibrosis of two different...

Pollen nuclear movement mediated by WIT and WIP [Plant Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Tue, 07/29/2014 - 09:19
Increasing evidence suggests that nuclear migration is important for eukaryotic development. Although nuclear migration is conserved in plants, its importance for plant development has not yet been established. The most extraordinary plant nuclear migration events involve plant fertilization, which is starkly different from that of animals. Instead of evolving self-propelled...

Ion pair buried in a hydrophobic environment [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Tue, 07/29/2014 - 09:19
An artificial charge pair buried in the hydrophobic core of staphylococcal nuclease was engineered by making the V23E and L36K substitutions. Buried individually, Glu-23 and Lys-36 both titrate with pKa values near 7. When buried together their pKa values appear to be normal. The ionizable moieties of the buried Glu–Lys...

Phosphodiester linkage discrimination by pol II [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Tue, 07/29/2014 - 09:19
Nonenzymatic RNA polymerization in early life is likely to introduce backbone heterogeneity with a mixture of 2′–5′ and 3′–5′ linkages. On the other hand, modern nucleic acids are dominantly composed of 3′–5′ linkages. RNA polymerase II (pol II) is a key modern enzyme responsible for synthesizing 3′–5′–linked RNA with high...

Conditional environmental approval for Kintyre

World Nuclear News - Tue, 07/29/2014 - 08:31
Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency has completed its assessment of the proposed Kintyre uranium mine, recommending state approval for the joint Cameco Australia-Mitsubishi Development project. A development decision will rest on future market conditions.

Quotable Warming Hiatus Quotes: Phil Jones 7th May, 2009‘Bottom line: the ‘no upward trend’ has to continue for a total of 15 years before we get worried.’

Climate Depot - Tue, 07/29/2014 - 07:25
Quotable Warming Hiatus Quotes http://theclimatescepticsparty.blogspot.com/2014/07/quotable-warming-hiatus-quotes.html Dr. Phil Jones – CRU emails – 5th July, 2005“The scientific community would come down on me in no uncertain terms if I said the world had cooled from 1998. OK it has but it is only 7 years of data and it isn’t statistically significant….”Dr. Phil Jones – CRU emails [...]

Act now on climate change or see costs soar, White House says

Climate Depot - Tue, 07/29/2014 - 07:18

The Church of Sweden has joined the International Church of Global Warming: ‘Probably the biggest common challengeever faced by humanity’

Climate Depot - Tue, 07/29/2014 - 07:13
The Church of Sweden has joined the International Church of Global Warming http://newnostradamusofthenorth.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-church-of-sweden-has-joined.html  “The lifestyle of the industrialised world is untenable”     The Church of SwedenThe bishops of the Church of Sweden have published a letter about climate change, which proves that this once venerable church is now a full member of the greenie leftist international Church of Global [...]

‘How Your Cereal Causes Climate Change’

Climate Depot - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 19:54

Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon? [Perspectives]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 14:12
Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical “collapse” associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple...

Update: NASA Scientist says record growth of Antarctic sea ice ‘is real and not due to an error’

Climate Depot - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 13:17

UV-B inhibits plant shade avoidance [Plant Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 13:05
Plants detect different facets of their radiation environment via specific photoreceptors to modulate growth and development. UV-B is perceived by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). The molecular mechanisms linking UVR8 activation to plant growth are not fully understood, however. When grown in close proximity to neighboring vegetation, shade-intolerant...

FHY1 works independently or coordinately with phyA [Plant Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 13:05
To incorporate the far-red light (FR) signal into a strategy for optimizing plant growth, FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 (FHY1) mediates the nuclear translocation of the FR photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) and facilitates the association of phyA with the promoters of numerous associated genes crucial for the response to environmental stimuli. However,...

Myosin phosphorylation in epithelial remodeling [Developmental Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 13:05
Spatiotemporally regulated actomyosin contractility generates the forces that drive epithelial cell rearrangements and tissue remodeling. Phosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory light chain (RLC) promotes the assembly of myosin monomers into active contractile filaments and is an essential mechanism regulating the level of myosin activity. However, the effects of phosphorylation...

LANA recruits RFC for replication and persistence [Microbiology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 13:05
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latently infects tumor cells and persists as a multiple-copy, extrachromosomal, circular episome. To persist, the viral genome must replicate with each cell cycle. The KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates viral DNA replication and persistence, but little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. We find that...

Ambidextrous chaperone activity [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 13:05
Mirror-image proteins (composed of d-amino acids) are promising therapeutic agents and drug discovery tools, but as synthesis of larger d-proteins becomes feasible, a major anticipated challenge is the folding of these proteins into their active conformations. In vivo, many large and/or complex proteins require chaperones like GroEL/ES to prevent misfolding...

Lactate stimulates plasticity gene expression [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 07/28/2014 - 13:05
l-lactate is a product of aerobic glycolysis that can be used by neurons as an energy substrate. Here we report that in neurons l-lactate stimulates the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes such as Arc, c-Fos, and Zif268 through a mechanism involving NMDA receptor activity and its downstream signaling cascade Erk1/2....
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