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Postfertilization sperm mitophagy in mammals [Agricultural Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 12:59
Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mtDNA is a universal principle in human and animal development, guided by selective ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the sperm-borne mitochondria after fertilization. However, it is not clear how the 26S proteasome, the ubiquitin-dependent protease that is only capable of degrading one protein molecule at a time,...

MIF reduces misfolded SOD1 toxicity in ALS [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 12:59
Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. It has been suggested that the toxicity of mutant SOD1 results from its misfolding and accumulation on the cytoplasmic faces...

Bioelectric impact of pathological angiogenesis [Physiology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 12:59
Pathological angiogenesis, as seen in many inflammatory, immune, malignant, and ischemic disorders, remains an immense health burden despite new molecular therapies. It is likely that further therapeutic progress requires a better understanding of neovascular pathophysiology. Surprisingly, even though transmembrane voltage is well known to regulate vascular function, no previous bioelectric...

Power in everyday life [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 12:59
How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people’s natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions....

CsrA-dependent modulation by a protein [Microbiology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 12:59
Regulation of translation is critical for maintaining cellular protein levels, and thus protein homeostasis. The conserved RNA-binding protein CsrA (also called RsmA; for carbon storage regulator and regulator of secondary metabolism, respectively; hereafter called CsrA) represents a well-characterized example of regulation at the level of translation initiation in bacteria. Binding...

Correction for Chahal et al., Dendrimer-RNA nanoparticles generate protective immunity against lethal Ebola, H1N1 influenza, and Toxoplasma gondii challenges with a single dose [Corrections]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 12:59
APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, ENGINEERING Correction for “Dendrimer-RNA nanoparticles generate protective immunity against lethal Ebola, H1N1 influenza, and Toxoplasma gondii challenges with a single dose,” by Jasdave S. Chahal, Omar F. Khan, Christopher L. Cooper, Justine S. McPartlan, Jonathan K. Tsosie, Lucas D. Tilley, Saima M. Sidik, Sebastian Lourido, Robert Langer,...

Dosage chromosome instability genes in yeast [Genetics]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 12:59
Somatic copy number amplification and gene overexpression are common features of many cancers. To determine the role of gene overexpression on chromosome instability (CIN), we performed genome-wide screens in the budding yeast for yeast genes that cause CIN when overexpressed, a phenotype we refer to as dosage CIN (dCIN), and...

Nutrition mediates conflict within a symbiosis [Evolution]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 12:59
Attine ants evolved farming 55–60 My before humans. Although evolutionarily derived leafcutter ants achieved industrial-scale farming, extant species from basal attine genera continue to farm loosely domesticated fungal cultivars capable of pursuing independent reproductive interests. We used feeding experiments with the basal attine Mycocepurus smithii to test whether reproductive allocation...

QnAs with Huda Y. Zoghbi [QnAs]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 12:59
When neuroscientist Huda Zoghbi first came face-to-face with Rett syndrome, she was well on her way to becoming a pediatric neurologist. Impelled by the plight of the patients and intrigued by the bizarre mix of symptoms that mark the syndrome, Zoghbi boldly decided to change course, setting aside her clinical...

Ikata 3 operating at full power again

World Nuclear News - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 09:51
Unit 3 of the Ikata nuclear power plant in Japan's Ehime prefecture has reached 100% operating capacity, owner Shikoku Electric Power Company announced today. The unit is the fifth Japanese reactor to resume operation.

Rio Tinto buys into Eclipse uranium project

World Nuclear News - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 09:21
Rio Tinto will fund up to AUD5 million ($3.8 million) in exploration expenditure to earn a 90% stake in one of Eclipse Metals' uranium projects in Australia's Northern Territory. It will also have right of first refusal over various other Eclipse uranium tenements in the state.

BWXT subsidiary to buy GE Hitachi Canada

World Nuclear News - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 09:21
BWX Technologies Canada is to acquire GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Canada in a move that will enable it to offer a wider range of technical solutions and services for Candu reactors.

Gary Johnson Backs CO2 ‘Fee’ To Fight ‘Global Warming’ – ‘I do believe that it is man-caused’ 

Climate Depot - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 09:10
http://dailycaller.com/2016/08/22/gary-johnson-backs-co2-fee-to-fight-global-warming/  Libertarian Party presidential candidate Gary Johnson looks on during National Convention held at the Rosen Center in Orlando, Florida, May 29, 2016. REUTERS/Kevin Kolczynski – RTX2EQ7N∧ Libertarian Party presidential nominee and former New Mexico Gov. Gary Johnson said he’s no skeptic of man-made global warming and endorsed a “fee” on carbon dioxide emissions. It’s [...]

Al Gore: If You Care About The ‘Climate Crisis’, Don’t Vote For A Third Party

Climate Depot - Mon, 08/22/2016 - 07:48
Via: https://thinkprogress.org/al-gore-dont-vote-third-party-15711ce062e7 Al Gore was asked what he would say to voters concerned about climate change but dissatisfied with both major candidates and considering voting for a third party, such as the Green Party. Gore replied: First of all I understand their feelings and misgivings. But if they are interested in my personal advice. I am [...]

Permafrost: It's a gas

Nature Geoscience Advanced Online - Sun, 08/21/2016 - 23:00

Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo2803

Author: Torben R. Christensen

Climate change is causing widespread permafrost thaw in the Arctic. Measurements at 33 Arctic lakes show that old carbon from thawing permafrost is being emitted as methane, though emission rates have not changed during the past 60 years.

Permafrost carbon: Catalyst for deglaciation

Nature Geoscience Advanced Online - Sun, 08/21/2016 - 23:00

Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo2802

Author: Andrew H. MacDougall

The sources contributing to the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations are unclear. Climate model simulations suggest thawing permafrost soils were the initial source, highlighting the vulnerability of modern permafrost carbon stores.

Tectonics: Tales of Himalayan topography

Nature Geoscience Advanced Online - Sun, 08/21/2016 - 23:00

Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo2805

Author: Michael H. Taylor

The Himalaya grow as India and Eurasia collide. Analyses of deformation during the 2015 Gorkha earthquake suggest that slip on small-scale splay faults, as well as motion during the interseismic period, help to create Earth's highest mountains.

Permafrost carbon as a missing link to explain CO2 changes during the last deglaciation

Nature Geoscience Advanced Online - Sun, 08/21/2016 - 23:00

Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo2793

Authors: K. A. Crichton, N. Bouttes, D. M. Roche, J. Chappellaz & G. Krinner

The atmospheric concentration of CO2 increased from 190 to 280 ppm between the last glacial maximum 21,000 years ago and the pre-industrial era. This CO2 rise and its timing have been linked to changes in the Earth’s orbit, ice sheet configuration and volume, and ocean carbon storage. The ice-core record of δ13CO2 (refs ,) in the atmosphere can help to constrain the source of carbon, but previous modelling studies have failed to capture the evolution of δ13CO2 over this period. Here we show that simulations of the last deglaciation that include a permafrost carbon component can reproduce the ice core records between 21,000 and 10,000 years ago. We suggest that thawing permafrost, due to increasing summer insolation in the northern hemisphere, is the main source of CO2 rise between 17,500 and 15,000 years ago, a period sometimes referred to as the Mystery Interval. Together with a fresh water release into the North Atlantic, much of the CO2 variability associated with the Bølling-Allerod/Younger Dryas period ∼15,000 to ∼12,000 years ago can also be explained. In simulations of future warming we find that the permafrost carbon feedback increases global mean temperature by 10–40% relative to simulations without this feedback, with the magnitude of the increase dependent on the evolution of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

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