Feed aggregator

Histone-binding of DPF2 mediates its repressive role in myeloid differentiation [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Double plant homeodomain finger 2 (DPF2) is a highly evolutionarily conserved member of the d4 protein family that is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues and was recently shown to inhibit the myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor and acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Here, we present the crystal structure of the tandem...

Reassessment of 20th century global mean sea level rise [Sustainability Science]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
The rate at which global mean sea level (GMSL) rose during the 20th century is uncertain, with little consensus between various reconstructions that indicate rates of rise ranging from 1.3 to 2 mm⋅y−1. Here we present a 20th-century GMSL reconstruction computed using an area-weighting technique for averaging tide gauge records...

Behavioral and neural correlates to multisensory detection of sick humans [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in...

Correction for Dash et al., Apogossypol derivative BI-97C1 (Sabutoclax) targeting Mcl-1 sensitizes prostate cancer cells to mda-7/IL-24-mediated toxicity [Corrections]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Apogossypol derivative BI-97C1 (Sabutoclax) targeting Mcl-1 sensitizes prostate cancer cells to mda-7/IL-24–mediated toxicity,” by Rupesh Dash, Belal Azab, Bridget A. Quinn, Xuening Shen, Xiang-Yang Wang, Swadesh K. Das, Mohamed Rahmani, Jun Wei, Michael Hedvat, Paul Dent, Igor P. Dmitriev, David T. Curiel, Steven Grant, Bainan Wu,...

Correction for Pivkin et al., Biomechanics of red blood cells in human spleen and consequences for physiology and disease [Corrections]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY, ENGINEERING Correction for “Biomechanics of red blood cells in human spleen and consequences for physiology and disease,” by Igor V. Pivkin, Zhangli Peng, George E. Karniadakis, Pierre A. Buffet, Ming Dao, and Subra Suresh, which appeared in issue 28, July 12, 2016, of Proc Natl Acad...

Correction for Andersson et al., Effect of cholesterol on the molecular structure and transitions in a clinical-grade lung surfactant extract [Corrections]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
CHEMISTRY, BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Effect of cholesterol on the molecular structure and transitions in a clinical-grade lung surfactant extract,” by Jenny Marie Andersson, Carl Gray, Marcus Larsson, Tiago Mendes Ferreira, and Emma Sparr, which appeared in issue 18, May 2, 2017, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA...

Evolutionary steps involving counterion displacement in a tunicate opsin [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Ci-opsin1 is a visible light-sensitive opsin present in the larval ocellus of an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. This invertebrate opsin belongs to the vertebrate visual and nonvisual opsin groups in the opsin phylogenetic tree. Ci-opsin1 contains candidate counterions (glutamic acid residues) at positions 113 and 181; the former is a newly...

The pentameric complex drives immunologically covert cell-cell transmission of wild-type human cytomegalovirus [Microbiology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains that have been passaged in vitro rapidly acquire mutations that impact viral growth. These laboratory-adapted strains of HCMV generally exhibit restricted tropism, produce high levels of cell-free virus, and develop susceptibility to natural killer cells. To permit experimentation with a virus that retained a clinically relevant...

Integrative modeling of gene and genome evolution roots the archaeal tree of life [Evolution]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
A root for the archaeal tree is essential for reconstructing the metabolism and ecology of early cells and for testing hypotheses that propose that the eukaryotic nuclear lineage originated from within the Archaea; however, published studies based on outgroup rooting disagree regarding the position of the archaeal root. Here we...

Angular measurements of the dynein ring reveal a stepping mechanism dependent on a flexible stalk [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
The force-generating mechanism of dynein differs from the force-generating mechanisms of other cytoskeletal motors. To examine the structural dynamics of dynein’s stepping mechanism in real time, we used polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with nanometer accuracy localization to track the orientation and position of single motors. By measuring the...

Perceived social presence reduces fact-checking [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Today’s media landscape affords people access to richer information than ever before, with many individuals opting to consume content through social channels rather than traditional news sources. Although people frequent social platforms for a variety of reasons, we understand little about the consequences of encountering new information in these contexts,...

Syringe-injectable mesh electronics integrate seamlessly with minimal chronic immune response in the brain [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Implantation of electrical probes into the brain has been central to both neuroscience research and biomedical applications, although conventional probes induce gliosis in surrounding tissue. We recently reported ultraflexible open mesh electronics implanted into rodent brains by syringe injection that exhibit promising chronic tissue response and recording stability. Here we...

Nanomechanics of the substrate binding domain of Hsp70 determine its allosteric ATP-induced conformational change [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Owing to the cooperativity of protein structures, it is often almost impossible to identify independent subunits, flexible regions, or hinges simply by visual inspection of static snapshots. Here, we use single-molecule force experiments and simulations to apply tension across the substrate binding domain (SBD) of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)...

Thoracic vertebral count and thoracolumbar transition in Australopithecus afarensis [Anthropology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
The evolution of the human pattern of axial segmentation has been the focus of considerable discussion in paleoanthropology. Although several complete lumbar vertebral columns are known for early hominins, to date, no complete cervical or thoracic series has been recovered. Several partial skeletons have revealed that the thoracolumbar transition in...

Emergence of categorical face perception after extended early-onset blindness [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
It is unknown whether the ability to visually distinguish between faces and nonfaces is subject to a critical period during development. Would a congenitally blind child who gains sight several years after birth be able to acquire this skill? This question has remained unanswered because of the rarity of cases...

Facial appearance affects science communication [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
First impressions based on facial appearance predict many important social outcomes. We investigated whether such impressions also influence the communication of scientific findings to lay audiences, a process that shapes public beliefs, opinion, and policy. First, we investigated the traits that engender interest in a scientist’s work, and those that...

Prognostic and biological significance of the proangiogenic factor EGFL7 in acute myeloid leukemia [Medical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Epithelial growth factor-like 7 (EGFL7) is a protein that is secreted by endothelial cells and plays an important role in angiogenesis. Although EGFL7 is aberrantly overexpressed in solid tumors, its role in leukemia has not been evaluated. Here, we report that levels of both EGFL7 mRNA and EGFL7 protein are...

Selective lowering of synapsins induced by oligomeric {alpha}-synuclein exacerbates memory deficits [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Mounting evidence indicates that soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid proteins linked to neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyloid-β (Aβ), tau, or α-synuclein (αSyn) might be the major deleterious species for neuronal function in these diseases. Here, we found an abnormal accumulation of oligomeric αSyn species in AD brains by custom ELISA,...

Solitary bees reduce investment in communication compared with their social relatives [Evolution]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Social animals must communicate to define group membership and coordinate social organization. For social insects, communication is predominantly mediated through chemical signals, and as social complexity increases, so does the requirement for a greater diversity of signals. This relationship is particularly true for advanced eusocial insects, including ants, bees, and...

Changes in perceptual sensitivity related to spatial cues depends on subcortical activity [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 05/22/2017 - 12:50
Spatial cues allow animals to selectively attend to relevant visual stimuli while ignoring distracters. This process depends on a distributed neuronal network, and an important current challenge is to understand the functional contributions made by individual brain regions within this network and how these contributions interact. Recent findings point to...
Syndicate content