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Retinoschisin: back-to-back octamer rings [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Retinoschisin (RS1) is involved in cell–cell junctions in the retina, but is unique among known cell-adhesion proteins in that it is a soluble secreted protein. Loss-of-function mutations in RS1 lead to early vision impairment in young males, called X-linked retinoschisis. The disease is characterized by separation of inner retinal layers...

COPI modulates Alzheimer{#x2019}s disease progression [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Cellular trafficking and recycling machineries belonging to late secretory compartments have been associated with increased Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk. We have shown that coat protein complex I (COPI)-dependent trafficking, an early step in Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum retrograde transport, affects amyloid precursor protein subcellular localization, cell-surface expression, as well as its metabolism....

Membrane domain in mycobacteria [Microbiology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Protected from host immune attack and antibiotic penetration by their unique cell envelope, mycobacterial pathogens cause devastating human diseases such as tuberculosis. Seamless coordination of cell growth with cell envelope elongation at the pole maintains this barrier. Unraveling this spatiotemporal regulation is a potential strategy for controlling mycobacterial infections. Our...

Imaging the dynamics of individual electropores [Chemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Electroporation is a widely used technique to permeabilize cell membranes. Despite its prevalence, our understanding of the mechanism of voltage-mediated pore formation is incomplete; methods capable of visualizing the time-dependent behavior of individual electropores would help improve our understanding of this process. Here, using optical single-channel recording, we track multiple...

Correction for Thomaston et al., High-resolution structures of the M2 channel from influenza A virus reveal dynamic pathways for proton stabilization and transduction [Corrections]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “High-resolution structures of the M2 channel from influenza A virus reveal dynamic pathways for proton stabilization and transduction,” by Jessica L. Thomaston, Mercedes Alfonso-Prieto, Rahel A. Woldeyes, James S. Fraser, Michael L. Klein, Giacomo Fiorin, and William F. DeGrado, which appeared in issue 46,...

IL-18 increases sepsis mortality via IL-17A [Immunology and Inflammation]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Interleukin (IL)-18 is an important effector of innate and adaptive immunity, but its expression must also be tightly regulated because it can potentiate lethal systemic inflammation and death. Healthy and septic human neonates demonstrate elevated serum concentrations of IL-18 compared with adults. Thus, we determined the contribution of IL-18 to...

{delta}-COP modulates APP retrograde trafficking [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
The components involved in cellular trafficking and protein recycling machinery that have been associated with increased Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk belong to the late secretory compartments for the most part. Here, we hypothesize that these late unavoidable events might be the consequence of earlier complications occurring while amyloid precursor protein...

Blue light reduces organ injury from I/R [Applied Biological Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Evidence suggests that light and circadian rhythms profoundly influence the physiologic capacity with which an organism responds to stress. However, the ramifications of light spectrum on the course of critical illness remain to be determined. Here, we show that acute exposure to bright blue spectrum light reduces organ injury by...

Preschool support trajectory of hippocampal growth [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Building on well-established animal data demonstrating the effects of early maternal support on hippocampal development and adaptive coping, a few longitudinal studies suggest that early caregiver support also impacts human hippocampal development. How caregiving contributes to human hippocampal developmental trajectories, whether there are sensitive periods for these effects, as well...

Soil NO emissions in dryland ecosystems [Environmental Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important trace gas and regulator of atmospheric photochemistry. Theory suggests moist soils optimize NO emissions, whereas wet or dry soils constrain them. In drylands, however, NO emissions can be greatest in dry soils and when dry soils are rewet. To understand how aridity and vegetation...

Prion proteins in plants [Plant Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Prion proteins provide a unique mode of biochemical memory through self-perpetuating changes in protein conformation and function. They have been studied in fungi and mammals, but not yet identified in plants. Using a computational model, we identified candidate prion domains (PrDs) in nearly 500 plant proteins. Plant flowering is of...

Layer-by-layer assembly for NIR-II imaging [Medical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1,000–1,700 nm) features deep tissue penetration, reduced tissue scattering, and diminishing tissue autofluorescence. Here, NIR-II fluorescent probes, including down-conversion nanoparticles, quantum dots, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and organic dyes, are constructed into biocompatible nanoparticles using the layer-by-layer (LbL) platform due to its modular...

Developmental obstetric dilemma (DOD) hypothesis [Anthropology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
The bony pelvis of adult humans exhibits marked sexual dimorphism, which is traditionally interpreted in the framework of the “obstetrical dilemma” hypothesis: Giving birth to large-brained/large-bodied babies requires a wide pelvis, whereas efficient bipedal locomotion requires a narrow pelvis. This hypothesis has been challenged recently on biomechanical, metabolic, and biocultural...

Brief intervention cuts suspension rates in half [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
Growing suspension rates predict major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment. Experiment 1 tested whether teachers (n = 39) could be encouraged to adopt an empathic rather than punitive mindset about discipline—to value students’ perspectives and sustain positive relationships while encouraging better behavior. Experiment 2 tested whether an...

Anti-lymphoma peptibodies [Medical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
B-cell lymphomas express a functionally active and truly tumor-specific cell-surface product, the variable region of the B-cell receptor (BCR), otherwise known as idiotype. The tumor idiotype differs, however, from patient to patient, making it a technical challenge to exploit for therapy. We have developed a method of targeting idiotype by...

Warm spring reduced impact of summer drought [Sustainability Science]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
The global terrestrial carbon sink offsets one-third of the world’s fossil fuel emissions, but the strength of this sink is highly sensitive to large-scale extreme events. In 2012, the contiguous United States experienced exceptionally warm temperatures and the most severe drought since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s, resulting...

Effects of musical intervention in infancy [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
Individuals with music training in early childhood show enhanced processing of musical sounds, an effect that generalizes to speech processing. However, the conclusions drawn from previous studies are limited due to the possible confounds of predisposition and other factors affecting musicians and nonmusicians. We used a randomized design to test...

Competitive mothers [Economic Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
Recent advances have highlighted the evolutionary significance of female competition, with the sexes pursuing different competitive strategies and women reserving their most intense competitive behaviors for the benefit of offspring. Influential economic experiments using cash incentives, however, have found evidence suggesting that women have a lower desire to compete than...

Investigating memory updating via reconsolidation [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
Reconsolidation theory proposes that retrieval can destabilize an existing memory trace, opening a time-dependent window during which that trace is amenable to modification. Support for the theory is largely drawn from nonhuman animal studies that use invasive pharmacological or electroconvulsive interventions to disrupt a putative postretrieval restabilization (“reconsolidation”) process. In...

Study shows benefit of New York nuclear units

World Nuclear News - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 09:27
The overall benefits of keeping New York's upstate nuclear power plants in operation under the state's Clean Energy Standards program would significantly outweigh the costs, a study by economists at the Brattle Group has found.
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