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Odor signaling in Drosophila OSNs [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 14:02
In Drosophila, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) rely primarily on two types of chemoreceptors, odorant receptors (Ors) and ionotropic receptors (Irs), to convert odor stimuli into neural activity. The cellular signaling of these receptors in their native OSNs remains unclear because of the difficulty of obtaining intracellular recordings from Drosophila OSNs....

Translation pause seen by nascent chain profiling [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 14:02
Although the importance of the nonuniform progression of elongation in translation is well recognized, there have been few attempts to explore this process by directly profiling nascent polypeptides, the relevant intermediates of translation. Such approaches will be essential to complement other approaches, including ribosome profiling, which is extremely powerful but...

HLA drives autoantibody specificity in pemphigus [Immunology and Inflammation]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 14:02
Patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) harbor antibodies reactive against self-antigens expressed at the surface of keratinocytes, primarily desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and, to a lesser extent, Dsg1. Conventionally, only antibodies targeting these molecules have been thought to contribute to disease pathogenesis. This notion has been challenged by a growing pool of...

Mechanism and role of ABA-induced leaf senescence [Plant Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 14:02
Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice....

Convergence of applied and basic sciences [Social Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 14:02
International research collaboration plays an important role in the social construction and evolution of science. Studies of science increasingly analyze international collaboration across multiple organizations for its impetus in improving research quality, advancing efficiency of the scientific production, and fostering breakthroughs in a shorter time. However, long-run patterns of international...

Mechanisms behind climate effects on zooplankton [Ecology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 14:02
Understanding how climate influences ecosystems is complicated by the many correlated and interrelated impacting factors. Here we quantify climate effects on Calanus finmarchicus in the northeastern Norwegian Sea and southwestern Barents Sea. By combining oceanographic drift models and statistical analyses of field data from 1959 to 1993 and investigating effects...

Metastasis suppression by TLR5 agonist entolimod [Immunology and Inflammation]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 14:02
Activation of an anticancer innate immune response is highly desirable because of its inherent ability to generate an adaptive antitumor T-cell response. However, insufficient safety of innate immune modulators limits clinical use to topical applications. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonists are favorably positioned as potential systemic immunotherapeutic agents because of...

Impact of ecosystem services knowledge [Sustainability Science]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 14:02
Research about ecosystem services (ES) often aims to generate knowledge that influences policies and institutions for conservation and human development. However, we have limited understanding of how decision-makers use ES knowledge or what factors facilitate use. Here we address this gap and report on, to our knowledge, the first quantitative...

Constraints on aerosol-cloud radiative effect [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 14:02
The topic of cloud radiative forcing associated with the atmospheric aerosol has been the focus of intense scrutiny for decades. The enormity of the problem is reflected in the need to understand aspects such as aerosol composition, optical properties, cloud condensation, and ice nucleation potential, along with the global distribution...

Poll: 91% Of Americans Aren’t Worried About Global Warming

Climate Depot - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 13:09
http://dailycaller.com/2016/02/01/poll-91-of-americans-arent-worried-about-global-warming/ A new poll has surfaced showing once again the vast majority of Americans don’t rank global warming as the most serious issue facing the country. A YouGov poll of 18,000 people in 17 countries found only 9.2 percent of Americans rank global warming as their biggest concern. Only Saudi Arabians were less concerned about global [...]

Climatologist Dr. Fred Singer: ‘Any warming observed during the past century appears to be trivially small and most likely economically beneficial’

Climate Depot - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 09:57
http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2016/01/climate_change_the_burden_of_proof.html The real threat to humanity comes not from any (trivial) greenhouse warming but from cooling periods creating food shortages and famines. … The burden of proof falls upon alarmists to demonstrate that this null hypothesis is not adequate to account for empirical climate data.  In other words, alarmists must provide convincing observational evidence for [...]

Niger uranium project receives mining permit

World Nuclear News - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 09:36
Niger has approved GoviEx's mining permit application for the Madaouela 1 tenement area, the company announced today. The approval means that the project is now fully permitted for construction and production.

‘Obama’s hidden climate leverage’: ‘Buried in the Clean Air Act is an extremely powerful mechanism – Gives EPA carte blanche to tell states to make drastic cuts to their emissions’

Climate Depot - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 09:33
A few weeks ago, a group of 13 prominent environmental law professors and attorneys released a 91-page report outlining this new approach, which would allow EPA to use existing laws to quickly and efficiently regulate all pollution sources, in all states — not just power plants and cars. The experts concluded, “It could provide one [...]

Hillary Clinton: GOP disbelieves climate change because Koch brothers tell them to

Climate Depot - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 08:18
http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/presidential-races/267642-clinton-gop-disbelieves-climate-change-because-koch Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton said late Saturday that most Republicans are skeptical of climate change because billionaire donors David and Charles Koch tell them to be. “Most of them are not that ill-informed,” she said during a campaign rally in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. “They just have to do what the Koch brothers tell [...]

Remember when Pikas were going to be wiped off the face of the Earth due to climate change? Never mind…

Climate Depot - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 08:12
Remember when Pikas were going to be wiped off the face of the Earth due to climate change? Never mind… http://wattsupwiththat.com/2016/02/01/remember-when-pikas-were-going-to-be-wiped-off-the-face-of-the-earth-due-to-climate-change-never-mind/ From OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY comes this Emily Litella climate moment, we told you so… Study: Future for charismatic pika not as daunting as once feared CORVALLIS, Ore. – The American pika is thought by many [...]

US SMR consortium launched

World Nuclear News - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 05:36
Developers and potential customers of small modular reactors (SMRs) on 27 January signed a memorandum of understanding to set up the SMR Smart consortium to advance the commercialization of SMR reactor designs.

Bulgaria agrees Kozloduy 6 life extension plan with Russia

World Nuclear News - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 05:35
Russian and Bulgarian companies have signed a contract to extend the operating life of unit 6 of the Kozloduy nuclear power plant to 60 years. The agreement - between Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant plc and a consortium of Russia's Rusatom Services and Bulgaria's Risk Engineering Ltd - was signed during a meeting of the Bulgarian-Russian intergovernmental commission on economic and scientific-technical cooperation in Sofia yesterday, by Evgeny Sal'kov, general director of Rusatom Services, and Dimitar Angelov, executive director of Kozloduy NPP plc.

Ukraine and France discuss cooperation in nuclear energy

World Nuclear News - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 05:32
French diplomats met with Ukrainian parliamentarians last week to discuss increased cooperation between the two countries in nuclear energy. Ukrainian nuclear power plant operator Energoatom announced on 29 January that a meeting with the parliamentary Committee on the Fuel and Energy Complex, Nuclear Policy and Nuclear Safety had been held the previous day on the initiative of the French embassy in Kiev.

Economic geology: Clues to hidden copper deposits

Nature Geoscience Advanced Online - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 00:00

Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo2656

Author: Jeremy Richards

Economic-grade deposits of copper are hard to find. The aluminium content of magmatic rocks at the surface may provide an indicator of ore deposits buried deep below.

Large contribution to inland water CO2 and CH4 emissions from very small ponds

Nature Geoscience Advanced Online - Mon, 02/01/2016 - 00:00

Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo2654

Authors: Meredith A. Holgerson & Peter A. Raymond

Inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Although they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of carbon processing in these waters are uncertain. The global extent of very small ponds, with surface areas of less than 0.001 km2, is particularly difficult to map, resulting in their exclusion from greenhouse gas budget estimates. Here we combine estimates of the lake and pond global size distribution, gas exchange rates, and measurements of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations from 427 lakes and ponds ranging in surface area from 25 m2 to 674 km2. We estimate that non-running inland waters release 0.583 Pg C yr−1. Very small ponds comprise 8.6% of lakes and ponds by area globally, but account for 15.1% of CO2 emissions and 40.6% of diffusive CH4 emissions. In terms of CO2 equivalence, the ratio of CO2 to CH4 flux increases with surface area, from about 1.5 in very small ponds to about 19 in large lakes. The high fluxes from very small ponds probably result from shallow waters, high sediment and edge to water volume ratios, and frequent mixing. These attributes increase CO2 and CH4 supersaturation in the water and limit efficient methane oxidation. We conclude that very small ponds represent an important inland water carbon flux.

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